麻类产品印染中难点解析/Hemp products in printing and dyeing difficult to resolve

2009-02-18

       作为一名麻类产品生产和销售专业人士,为了使产品更加适应市场需要,必须与您的客户加强沟通学习,铜陵大隆麻业纺织有限公司针对近些年一些客户碰到的问题做一简单汇总,供热爱麻纺事业的成功人士参考。

1. 练漂破洞

外观:坯布经双氧水漂白后布面有相邻之经纱纬纱断裂,形成小破洞。

成因:布面上粘有铁锈,漂白浴中有铁离子,使布与双氧水急剧氧化而使纱线断裂。

2. 色花

外观:布面有不规则片状之颜色深浅

成因:前处理退浆,精练未彻底作好

3. 雾斑

外观:与色花类似,但形状小些,轮廓布明显,无规则分布

成因:①溅到污染物 ②练漂后未立即烘干,长时间堆置在布车上使部分织物发生风干水印

4. 色差

外观:成品颜色与指定颜色不完全一致

成因:工艺误差(因个人眼光不同而异)

5. 阴阳面

外观:织物正反两面色光有差异(一般指平纹织物)

成因:①出布方向未能与轧辊压吸线在同一平面内

      ②压染后预干时,织物两面受热不均

      ③树脂整理加工织物两面风速不同

6. 左中右色差

外观:全幅织物左中右布面颜色有差异(深浅)

成因:①轧辊左右压力不一致

      ②在预烘,固色及后加工时,受热温度或风速不相同

7. 首尾色差、匹色差

外观:连续染色中,匹首与匹尾,匹与匹之间可能出现的颜色差异

成因:①前处理处理不一

②染色工艺的不稳定因素:如温控,燃料及追加料的用量等

③燃料及助剂的分解等

8. 移染

外观:织物表面色调发生浓浅之变化

成因:①轧辊压力过大

      ②燃料用量过高

      ③染色后烘干前放置太久

      ④烘干速度太快

      ⑤未加防泳移剂或剂量不够

9. 横档

外观:纬向出现整幅与布面不协调的横条,或色浅,或不上色

成因:前处理或织物本身原料原因

10.碱斑

外观:大小不一的白斑(不上色)

成因:前处理碱液没洗干净

11.皱条

外观:经向条形色浅

成因:布面起皱,双层吃色不透①张力过大 ②织物过厚或过薄(双固色解决)

12.隐条,色条,色点

外观:布面出现规律或不规律颜色偏深色条或色点

成因:①规律性:轧辊不洁发生沾色 等

      ②不规律性:染化料没有完全化开 等

1.   麻(棉)粒

外观:布面呈现类似接头大小之麻(棉)纤维团,且系纺入纱中者。如将之拔下,则纱呈断裂或将至断裂之状态。低等级原麻(棉)纺成之粗纱,常有此种瑕疵

成因: ①原棉中有死棉纤维团,于清花过程中未彻底除去。               

②梳麻(棉)时锡林或针板之针不够尖锐,或两者间之隔距设定不当,未能充份发挥梳理作用。

2.   麻皮

外观:纯麻或混纺之胚布面,有甚小灰色或原麻色之非纤维碎片点

成因:①梳麻前处理不透而使残余麻皮掺附于原麻中。 ②清花过程未能将麻皮彻底清除。

3.   粗节

外观:织物之经纱或纬纱上,偶有一小段长约5至20mm较纱之正常直径为粗,较炒之正常捻数为少之簇状纤维。

成因:①精纺时喂入之粗纱内,纤维内密度不均匀,有较小型密集之梭状纤维束。
②精纺机之皮辊及皮圈未能均一将喂入之粗纱把持。

4.   飞花

外观:与粗结相似,但其较粗,不像粗结般之细长,纤维成团状。将纱略予退捻,可不致使纱断裂。

成因:细纱间内飘浮于空中之纤维团,或积集在机器喂入附近台面上之纤维团,缠绕于纱上。

5.   节纱

外观:在约纤物幅宽长度之一段纱中,有间隔性之大粗结。纱之粗细变化似竹节状,一般在粗纱织物之纬纱较常见,故亦称竹节纬。

成因:精纺机之牵伸罗拉设定大紧,罗拉盖太松,喂入之粗纱中偶有异长之纤维。

6.   纱支不均

外观:由织物长面观察,织入之纱有粗细不均匀之现象。一般多发生在纬纱

成因:细纱机纺出之纱,由于牵伸机构故障,或性能不良,致纺出之纱在一段间,时有略粗时有略细者。

7.   云织

外观:纬纱之支数显著不均匀,织造时粗者或细者恰好集中排列在一起,形成片状,布面外观似片片浮云,故称云织。

成因:纬纱有规律性之不匀,于织造时纬纱之排列又恰好粗者或细者汇集在 一起。

8.   批号不同

外观:纱线支数粗细与密度均符合规定,但经染色后,经纱间或纬纱间有界限分明颜色深浅之不同。

成因:①所用纱线不是同批号纱,所经过的工艺差异使之得色有所不同

      ②在织造时使用之混纺纱,虽支数与密度符合规定,但纱中纤维之混纺率不同,在经染色后则有颜色深浅之差别。

9.   蒸纱不良

外观:混纺布,经退浆、精练、漂白后,布幅有间隔性宽窄不同之变化。

成因:①混纺纱于细纱落管后,需利用高压饱和蒸汽于密闭之容器内热蒸处理,以稳定纱之物性。如蒸纱温度或时间不足,未能使纱定型,则于练漂时蒸煮后,织物布面横向呈现一段紧,一段松之现象

10.纤维白点

外观:①染色之织物,布面中有极少量之纤维不上色,或上色较浅,而呈现泛白色者。②或者布面呈现未上色之纤维团,尤以染中深色者较为显著。

成因:①多发生在中、下等级之棉质染色布,纱中死棉纤维所形成之棉粒,于精练,丝光时未能清除。染色时因该种死棉纤维上色性甚差,故难以染着而呈现白点。近来20Ne以下之纯棉开端纺纱织成之织物,于染色时经常发生。②混入异纤

1.   破洞

外观:胚布之经纬纱断裂,形成大小不同之破洞。此种瑕疵易发生在经纬较密之织物。

成因:张力过大经纬纱发生绷断或在织造时与织机部件或其他硬物发生摩擦致经纬纱断裂。

2.   豁边

外观:布边之边纱连续断纱三根以上,布边裂开形成缺者。

成因:①织造时边纱所受之张力过大,因而断裂。 ②边撑器使用不当或规格不符,将边纱拉断。

3.   跳纱

外观:经纱或纬纱未依照规定之组织织入,而浮于布面上者。

成因:织口启开之角度太小,或综丝悬吊不平,及少数之经纱特别松弛。

4.   修正不良

外观:织造产生严重之瑕疵,虽经排除、修补,但仍残留有痕迹。

成因:断经、稀衖、密路等,虽经修布人员用钢梳梳理,但纱之排列仍不正常,且有弯曲之现象。

5.   经缩 纬缩

外观:织物经纱或纬纱有一小段卷缩缠扭在一起而织入布中。在强捻纱织造之织物则较易发生。

成因:①经缩:在整经时其中之一根经纱过份松弛,致而有一段发生卷缩。②纬缩:.纬纱管中或作纬纱用之筒子纱中,已有小段纱卷缩缠扭之现象;或纬纱管成形不当,退纱时不畅顺;或纬纱张力太小,织口开口不清等。

6.   边撑疵

外观:在布边内有约2至5公分宽之针刺或受针刺刮拉之痕迹。严重者致使该部位之纬纱发生波浪形之弯曲。

成因:边撑器选用之针粗细不宜,及边撑器刺环卡死不能回转,或回转不够畅顺。

7.   断经 断纬

外观:①织物之经纱断掉一根或多根,致其左右两相邻纱间之距离变大。在平纹织物,则变成两根断纱并列,如同并经。在斜纹织物,则布纹有间断之现象。②织物中之纬纱断掉,但断开之两端距离甚近,即断掉之长短较小。此种瑕疵一般多不显著。

成因:①断经:经纱于织造中断掉,自停装置失灵,未将经纱接妥而继续织造。②断纬:纬纱于织造中断裂,但瞬间仍继续织入,仅缺一小段距离;或纬纱上有严重之粗结与飞花等,于拆除时导致纬纱断裂

8.   松经 松纬

外观:一根织入布中之经纱或纬纱,在其交织点部位,较正常者凸凹布面,有向上拱起之现象。

成因:单独一根之经纱或纬纱织造时所受之张力较小,或将经纱接合后该根经纱过于松弛。

9.   杂物织入

外观:飞花、回丝、油花、皮质、木质、金属等杂物织入。

成因:纱线存放不当或车间清洁不够。

10.双经 双纬

外观:相邻之两根经纱或两根纬纱并在一起,依织物组织当作一根织入布中者。视之,该根(实为两根)纱线

      显的特别粗。

成因:①双经:整经牵纱时即疏忽将两根当作一根;或浆纱后分纱不清,两根黏在一起,形同一根。;或穿综时两根穿入同一综丝。

      ②双纬:织物全幅长之并纬,系因停机排除故障后,未查对织口开车。或探纬针失效,断纬未自停;或非全幅长之并纬,经因保险纱之长度不够,边剪设定不当或不够锐利,及断纬后未将纱尾清除。

11.稀密路

    外观:布面上纬纱排列之密度较规定稀少(密集)。沿织物长度一段织入之纬纱,由正常密度逐渐变稀(密),再由最稀逐渐恢复至原来密度,形成一条等宽窄之稀疏(紧密)布面。

    成因:①探纬针失灵,无纬纱时继续空转送经。 ②织造时经纱张力控制不当。 ③停机再开车前经纱张力调整太紧。

12.百脚

外观:此种瑕疵仅发生在斜纹织造,在每一完全组织同部位之经纱,同时浮于布面,状似一集蜈蜙之多脚。

成因:斜纹布少织入一根纬纱,则交织点减少,部份经纱连续两次浮于纬纱上。

13.组织错误

外观:即织法错误,布面之织纹与原设计者不同。例如左斜纹织成右斜纹等。

成因:一般多为穿综错误所造成。其它如提花织物之纹板错误,多规格经纱织物之经纱排列错误等。

14.拖纱

外观:在布面上或布边处,残留有伸出布面之纱尾。
成因:因经纱或纬纱断裂,接妥后未将纱尾剪除。或织机之边剪失灵,未将换纬后之纱尾剪除。

15.接头

外观:布面上有紧密打结之粗大小圆球。

成因:经纱或纬纱断裂后接合,所打之结太大,凸出于布面。

16.送经不匀

外观:布面纬纱之密度,微作周期性稀密之变化,视之有稀一段密一段之感觉。

成因:织造时经纱送出之张力或送出经纱之速率不稳定。

17.配纱错误

外观:先染纱之织物,或在组织上有不同规格纱之织物,纱未照设计之规定排列,致花纹或图案未达预期效果多发生在条子布、格子布及多种规格经纱之提花布。

成因:①条子布、格子布经纱根数配列未符规定,或格子布纬纱织入根数未符规定,致条子、格子形状异常。
②整经未将不同规格之经纱依规定配列,或未依照规定织入不同规格之纬纱。

18.浆斑,霉斑

外观:①浆斑:在胚布之布面出现浆料干块或斑点。

②霉斑:胚布之表面出现灰黑色或淡红色发霉之斑点。

成因:①浆斑:浆纱用之浆液未能完全糊化,压浆罗拉磨损,罗拉表面不平。

      ②存放位置湿度过高,存放时间过久。

19.油污等污染物

外观:明显的油污等污质沾染在坯布上

成因:运输或车间管理不善

Hemp products as a production and sales professionals, in order to make our products better adapted to the needs of the market must be consistent with your customer to strengthen communication study, Ma Dalong Tongling Industry Co., Ltd. for Textile recent problems encountered by some customers to do one simple summary for the success of love linen industry reference.
1. Scouring and bleaching hole
Appearance: gray cloth fabric after bleaching by hydrogen peroxide has adjacent warp weft of fracture, the formation of small holes.

Cause: Have sticky cloth surface rust, bleach bath has iron ions, so that cloth sharply with the hydrogen peroxide oxidation of yarn breakage.

2. Flower color

Appearance: Oil has irregular flake color depth

Cause: The former deal with desizing, scouring is not completely ready

3. Fog Spot

Appearance: The flower color similar but smaller shape, contour cloth Obviously, without the rules of distribution

Causes: ① ② spilled pollutants not immediately after bleaching drying, long堆置car parts in the cloth air-dry fabric occurred watermark

4. Chromatic aberration

Appearance: color finished with the designated color is not fully consistent

Cause: Process error (due to personal vision vary)

5. Yin and Yang face

Appearance: light fabric has both positive and negative differences (generally refers to plain weave fabric)

Causes: ① the direction of the cloth could not roll pressure suction line in the same plane

       ② After the pre-stem pressure dyeing, the fabric on both sides uneven heating

       ③ resin fabric finishing two different wind speed

6. Left-right difference

Appearance: full-size fabric cloth leftists have differences in color (shade)

Causes: ① pressure roller about inconsistencies

       ② In the pre-drying, fixing and processing, the heating temperature or wind speed is not the same

7. Both chromatic aberration, chromatic aberration horses

Appearance: continuous staining in the first horses and horse tail, horses and horses that may arise between the color difference

Causes: ① the former deal with different treatment

② dyeing destabilizing factors: such as temperature, fuel and the amount of additional material, such as

③ fuels and additives, such as the decomposition

8. Dye transfer

Appearance: fabric surface color changes occurred in dense shallow

Causes: ① roller pressure

       ② excessive fuel consumption

       ③ stained place for too long before drying

       ④ drying too fast

       ⑤ not anti-migration agent or dose not

9. Transverse profile

Appearance: zonal emerged whole cloth incompatible with the bar, or Light, or not color

Cause: Pre-treatment of raw materials or fabric itself causes

10. Alkali-saline patches

Appearance: white spots of various sizes (not color)

Cause: The alkali treatment did not wash clean

11. Article wrinkle

Appearance: Light through the strip

Cause: Oil wrinkling, double-color do not eat too much tension through ① ② fabric too thick or too thin (two-fixing solution)

12. Implicit article, the color of the color point

Appearance: Oil on the law or appear irregular dark color or partial color point

Causes: ① regularity: Roll staining occurs, such as unclean

       ② non-regularity: dyes not completely open, etc. of

1. Ma (cotton) tablets

Appearance: Oil on a connector similar to the size of Ma (cotton) fiber groups, and the Department of De-spinning into yarn. Such as to unplug, the yarn was broken or is approaching the status of fracture. Low-grade raw jute (cotton) spun into the frame, often of such defects

Causes: ① raw cotton in the cotton fiber corporations have died in the process of flower-money is not completely removed.

② Salisbury Ma (cotton) or needle plate when the cylinder of the needle sharp enough, or between the gauge set improperly, it can not fully play the role of grooming.

2. Bark

Appearance:纯麻or blends of cloth face, has even a small gray or color of the original Ma-point non-fibrous debris

Causes: ① Salisbury Ma impenetrable before treatment of residual bark attached to the original Ma-doped in. ② clearance process may not be able to flower and complete removal of bark.

3. Thick section

Appearance: the fabric of the warp or weft, the occasional short, about 5 to 20mm in diameter than normal yarn for rough than normal twist speculation a few smaller clusters of fibers.

Causes: ① worsted when the roving feeding, the fiber density within the non-uniform, have smaller fiber bundles Clostridium intensive.
② precision textile machinery rollers and aprons of skin will be unable to even feed the roving dominated.

4. Fly

Appearance: rough balance with the similar, but its thick, unlike the long and thin like a rough balance, fiber-like agglomerans. Will be slightly to the back-twist yarn, not resulting in yarn breakage.

Cause: spinning room of fibers floating in the air mission, or the plot set in the machine near the table of the fiber feeding groups, entangled in the yarn.

5. Section yarn

Appearance: fiber material in about a section width of the length of yarn, there are large间隔性rough knot. Yarn's thickness changes may bamboo-shaped, usually in the fabric of weft rovings more common, it also known as the bamboo weft.

Cause: Jing Textile Machinery large set of drawing rollers tight, too loose Lauragais, feeding rovings of occasional differences in fiber length.

6. Yarn uneven

Appearance: long face observed by the fabric, weaving the yarn has the phenomenon of uneven thickness. Generally occur in the weft

Cause: spinning frame spinning out of yarn, as a result of drawing Fault, or the performance of non-performing, caused by the spinning of yarn over a period of years, when has a little rough from time to time a little thin.

7. Cloud Texture

Appearance: weft count of significantly uneven, rough or when weaving fine with those who just concentrate together to form a sheet, fabric appearance may movie floating clouds, so that cloud texture.

Cause: The uneven weft have regularity in the order of weft weaving when it happens to coarse or fine persons together.

8. Lot of different

Appearance: count yarn thickness and density are consistent with the provisions of, but after staining, the warp or weft distinct boundaries between different colors.

Causes: ① used yarn yarns are not the same batch number, the result of the process so that yield differences between different

       ② in weaving the use of blended yarn, though a few teams with the required density, but the yarn fiber blends in different rates, after staining in the shade of the color difference has.

9. Steamed yarn adverse

Appearance: blended fabric, as desizing, scouring, bleaching, the cloth pieces of different width have间隔性change.

Causes: ① blended in the spinning drop tube, the required use of high-pressure saturated steam in the sealed container of steam heat treatment to stabilize the physical properties of yarn. Steamed yarn such as temperature or lack of time, failed to bring yarn stereotypes, in Cooking time scouring and bleaching, the fabric shows a horizontal section of the fabric tight, a phenomenon Matsunosuke

10. Fiber white spots

Appearance: ① dyeing of fabric, the fabric has a very small amount of the fiber is not color, or color lighter, and has pan-white persons. ② color or fabric of fibers showed no mission, particularly in dark-colored dye is more significant.

Causes: ① occur in the middle and lower grades of cotton dyeing cloth, cotton yarn in the death of the cotton fibers formed tablets, in concise, mercerizing failed to clear. Staining due to the color of cotton fiber die poor, it is difficult to dyed and has white spots. Recently 20Ne following the beginning of spinning cotton woven into the fabric, in dyeing a frequent occurrence. ② mixed with different fiber

1. Hole

Appearance: The latitude and longitude cloth yarn breakage, the formation of holes of different sizes. Prone to such flaws in the latitude and longitude of the more dense fabric.

Cause: too much tension occurred Jingwei stretch yarn off or weaving loom parts with a hard object or other friction-induced fracture Jingwei yarn.

2. Excluding edge

Appearance: Selvedge Yarn straight off the side of three or more yarn, cloth side of the formation of missing persons dehiscence.

Causes: ① weaving yarn suffered when the edge of the tension is too large, and thus fracture. ② side shoring devices are used improperly or specifications do not match, the side pull off yarn.

3. Jump yarn

Appearance: not warp or weft of the organization in accordance with the provisions of weaving, and float on the surface of those cloth.

Cause: open the mouth texture of the angle is too small, or fully mechanized silk suspension injustice, and a few special relaxation of the warp.

4. Amendments to the adverse

Appearance: Weaving have serious flaws, though, as to exclude, mending, but still have traces of residue.

Cause: breaking through, thin alley, Micronesia and roads, although the revised steel comb carding cloth officers, but with the yarn is not normal, and there is the phenomenon of bending.

5. Wei shrink by shrink

Appearance: the warp or weft fabric has a small kink entangled and twisted together in weaving cloth. Hard Twist yarn woven in the fabric is prone to.

Causes: ① by shrinking: in the whole of them by the time warp of an over-relaxation, and has induced a period of kink occurred. ② weft shrinkage:. Weft tube or weft yarn is used in cheese are already above twisted yarn wrapped around the kink phenomenon; or weft improper tube back yarn is not smooth; or weft tension is too small, woven mouth opening unclear and so on.

6. Edge up defects

Appearance: In Selvedge About 2-5 cm wide of acupuncture or acupuncture Guala the trace. In severe cases, resulting in the occurrence of parts of the weft of the wave-shaped bending.

Cause: Edge Selection shoring thickness of the needle should not be, and edge up the browser thorn stuck ring should not rotating, or rotating smoothly enough.

7. Broken by broken weft

Appearance: ① broken warp the fabric of one or more roots, induced by its two adjacent yarn about the distance between the larger. In plain weave fabric, then cut yarn into two side by side, as by. In the twill fabric, while Gyrosigma the phenomenon has stopped. ② broken weft of fabric, but disconnected at both ends of a very near distance, that is, the smaller the length cut off. Such flaws do not generally significant.

Causes: ① broken by: warp yarn in weaving broken, since the stopping device failure, did not properly take the warp and continue weaving. ② broken weft: weaving in the weft in the fracture, but continue to weave into the moment, only missing a short distance; or weft of coarse serious knot with the fly and so on, when in the removal of lead fracture weft

8. Song by Song Wei

Appearance: weaving a cloth in the warp or weft, woven point in their positions than normal convexity Oil, has the phenomenon of upward arch.

Causes: a separate one of the warp or weft weaving tension anxiety smaller or bonding warp warp after the root is too lax.

9. Debris weaving

Appearance: fly, back to silk,油花, cortex, wood, metal and other debris weaving.

Cause: improper storage of yarn or workshop clean enough.

10. Double by the double-weft

Appearance: The two adjacent warp or weft and two together, according to the Organization as a fabric woven into the fabric of those. Regarded as the root (actually two) of yarn

       Significant special rough.

Causes: ① double by: yarn warping when negligence led to a 2 as; or sub yarn after sizing unclear, two sticking together has become one. ; Or when wearing Fully Integrated 2 penetrated through the same wire.

       ② Double Weft: fabric full size and long-wai, downtime due to troubleshooting, the drive does not check the mouth texture. Wei-pin lapsed or exploration, off-wai did not stop; or full-length and latitude by the length of yarn due to lack of insurance, cutting edge sharpness settings are inappropriate or insufficient, and the broken weft yarn end after failing to clear.

11. Dilute Mi Road

     Appearance: weft cloth surface with scarce than the requirement of density (intensive). Along the length of a section of fabric woven into the weft, by the normal density gradually-thinning (density), and then by the gradual return of the most dilute to the original density, such as the formation of a width of sparse (close) Oil.

     Causes: ① weft needle failure detection, non-weft to continue to transfer by air. ② when weaving the warp tension control improper. ③ stands again before driving to adjust the warp tension too tight.

12. Hundred feet

Appearance: This flaw only occurs in twill weave, in each complete organization of the same parts of the warp, while floating on the cloth, like as many as one sets foot蜙centipede.

Cause: Twill weaving a weft less, then intertwined point reduction, part of the warp twice the floating weft.

13. Organizational error

Appearance: that is the wrong stitch, the fabric of the original designers of Nassarius different. For example, right-left twill woven twill.

Cause: General wear mostly mechanized error. Others, such as the Jacquard pattern plate wrong, multi-specification of the warp warp fabric with errors.

14. Trailers yarn

Appearance: the surface of the cloth or fabric edge, the residual has stretched out the fabric of the yarn tail.
Cause: because of the warp or weft breakage, and then did not properly yarn tail will be cut off. Or loom cut edge of failure, not-for-weft yarn after tail cut off.

15. Joints

Appearance: cloth surface has a close tie of the rough size of a ball.

Cause: the warp or weft bonding after fracture, the fight knot too big, protruding on the cloth.

16. Sent by the uneven

Appearance: Oil on the weft density, micro-thin dense for a cyclical change, depending on the thin section of Micronesia has the feeling of a period.

Cause: When weaving warp tension or sent out of the warp speed of instability.

17. Yarn with error

Appearance: first yarn of the fabric, or in the organization have different specifications of yarn fabrics, yarn design did not follow the provisions of order, pattern or design-induced effects occur up to expectations in the striped cloth, grid cloth and a variety of specifications of jacquard warp cloth.

Causes: ① striped cloth, plaid cloth with warp root out a few did not meet the requirements or plaid cloth weft纱织into the root number did not meet the requirements induced by striped, plaid abnormal shape.
② warping of different specifications not warp out in accordance with the provisions of, or in accordance with the provisions of weaving weft of different specifications.

18. Pulp grouper,霉斑

Appearance: ① plasma spot: Oil on the cloth appears in the slurry dry block or spot.

②霉斑: gray cloth on the surface appear black or reddish spots of mold.

Causes: ① plasma spot: Sizing slurry used has not been fully gelatinization, grouting roller wear, roller surface uneven.

       ② high humidity storage location, storage time is too long.

19. Oil and other pollutants

Appearance: clear oil, such as sewage contamination in the fabric on the quality

Causes: poor management of transport or workshop